Everyone knows teen behavior is highly influenced by their friends, but a new study finds even a friend's parents can influence whether or not a teen drinks buy Procardia
or uses drugs.
If the parents of your teen's friends are unaware of their child's drug or alcohol use, or worse, condone it, that may make your child more likely to partake as well, the study found.
"Among friendship groups with 'good parents' there's a synergistic effect - if your parents are consistent and aware of order Tizanidine
whereabouts, and your friends' parents are also consistent and aware of their (children's) whereabouts, then you are less likely to use substances," study author Michael Cleveland, research assistant professor at Penn State University, said in a university news release. "But if you belong to a friendship group whose parents are inconsistent, and your parents are consistent, you're still more likely to use alcohol."
The study is published in the May issue of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and purchase Asacol
Researchers surveyed about 9,000 ninth-graders from rural school districts about their closest friends, their parents' discipline and if their parents knew who their friends were. After questioning the teens, the researchers identified nearly 900 different groups of friends, each made up of about 10 to 11 teenagers. One year later, the teens were surveyed again about their use of Maxaman online
, cigarettes and marijuana.
Teens whose parents were consistent in their discipline and generally knew what their children were up to were less likely to use drugs or alcohol. However, even if parents were consistent and aware of their teen's activities, some of that protection was erased if their friends' parents were more lenient or clueless.
"The peer context is a very powerful cheap Revitalizing Night Cream
. We've found in other studies that the peer aspect can overwhelm your upbringing," Cleveland said.
Consuming probiotic-rich Acai online
may decrease the risk of diarrhea for patients who are taking antibiotics, a new study suggests.
Probiotics are live microorganisms that are found naturally in foods such as yogurt and are believed to provide health benefits.
About 30 percent of patients who take antibiotics will experience diarrhea because the drugs disrupt gastrointestinal microbes, and diarrhea is one of the main reasons people don't adhere to antibiotic treatment.
"Diarrhea is a common problem in patients receiving antibiotic therapy and may limit their use," said Dr. David Bernstein, chief of hepatology at North Shore University Hospital in Manhasset, N.Y. Bernstein was not involved in the new study.
"While these antibiotics treat the underlying infection, they also alter the normal gut [microbes], which leads to diarrhea," Bernstein said. "Replacing [the microbes] in patients on Anaphen Hardcore online
has long been thought to improve antibiotic-associated diarrhea."
In the study, researchers led by Susanne Hempel, of RAND Health in Santa Monica, Calif., reviewed the findings of 63 clinical trials involving nearly 12,000 participants. They found that probiotic use was associated with a 42 percent lower risk of developing antibiotic-associated purchase Haldol
"This study further underscores the importance of maintaining the balance of our intestinal bacteria," said Dr. Roshini Rajapaksa, a gastroenterologist at NYU Langone Medical Center and assistant professor at the NYU School of Medicine in New York City.
"We are learning how our beneficial bacteria can protect us not only from gastrointestinal diseases but perhaps other conditions as well," said Rajapaksa, who was not involved in the new research. "If we disrupt our bacterial balance with antibiotics, it seems prudent to restore the buy Antivert
bacteria with a probiotic supplement. However, further research is needed to determine which strains and doses will be most helpful."
The study authors agreed that there wasn't sufficient evidence to determine if the beneficial effects of probiotics vary by patient population, antibiotic characteristic or probiotic preparation.
"Future studies should assess these factors and explicitly assess the possibility of adverse events to better refine our understanding of the use of probiotics to prevent [antibiotic-associated diarrhea]," Rand and her colleagues concluded.
The study showed only an association between probiotic use and decreased odds for diarrhea; it was not designed to prove a cause-and-effect relationship.
Bernstein said that, as of now, there is not much clarity for consumers in terms of what microbes are included in a particular probiotic product. Probiotics "remain a largely unregulated and diverse class of supplements," he said. "Probiotic preparations are made up of a multitude of types of bacteria."
The study appears in the May 9 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Older women with the irregular heartbeat known as atrial fibrillation face a 14 percent greater risk of stroke than men with the same condition, Canadian researchers report.
The raised risk remained higher even when women were taking the blood-thinner buy Chloramphenicol
to prevent stroke, the study authors noted.
"Previously, there was a common belief that women were undertreated, and this was the cause for the higher risk of stroke," said lead researcher Dr. Louise Pilote, director of the division of general internal medicine at McGill University and McGill University Health Center in Montreal.
"Our current paper shows that this is not the situation and, compared to men, women have higher risk for stroke regardless of warfarin prescriptions," she said. "This study should alert doctors treating patients with atrial fibrillation that women, especially older women, have a higher risk for stroke compared with men, and therefore sex should weigh in the decision to start a patient on blood-thinners and the dose should be followed closely."
The report was published in the May 9 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
To see if there were differences in the risk of stroke between men and women with atrial fibrillation, Pilote's group collected data on more than 39,000 men and 44,000 women aged 65 and older.
Although both men and women were taking the blood-thinner warfarin, the researchers found more women (5.8 percent) than men (4.3 percent) suffered strokes.
The difference between men and women was particularly strong among those aged 75 and older, where women were more prone to stroke regardless of warfarin use or adherence to taking the order Strattera
, the investigators found.
Atrial fibrillation is a common cardiac arrhythmia that affects an estimated 2.2 million Americans, the researchers noted.
People with atrial fibrillation have a fivefold increase in the risk of stroke compared with the general population, which is why blood-thinners are prescribed for these patients, they explained.
Dr. Gregg Fonarow, a professor of cardiology at the University of California, Los Angeles, said that "a number of recent studies have suggested that women with cheap French Red Wine
fibrillation are at even greater risk for stroke than men, and recent updates to stroke risk prediction tools in patients with atrial fibrillation have integrated this information."
The reasons for gender-based differences in stroke risk have not been entirely clear, but differences in use of blood-thinning treatment has been hypothesized.
"While determining the mechanisms accounting for this higher stroke risk in women requires further study, physicians should be aware of order Zithromax
especially high risk of stroke in women and optimize stroke prevention therapies," Fonarow said.